Well two of your questions can be answered quite quickly.
First the EU question. Once Catalonia becomes a country in its own right it ceases to be in the EU and will have to apply to join it. This was made very plain to Scotland when they held their Referendum to break away from the United Kingdom. They were told not only by the British Government but also the EU that they would have to apply to join AND more to the point it would not necessarily be granted. And here is the reason why.
There are at the moment 28 countrys in the Union all have the power to veto any new membership. Its the reason Turkey has not joined because Germany for the last 25 years has vetoed the Membership application.
Spain who would still be a member would undoubtedly veto Catalonia from joining as would Belgium who also risks being torn apart by the Walloon area of Belgium.
I doubt the UK would have vetoed Scotland joining as we are not that vindictive but both Spain and Belgium would have objected. In Scotland's case it was never put to the test as they voted to remain in the Union.
The second question was about the banks. The Banks in the Catalonia area of Spain would be very foolish to and dare I say pretty dumb to pull out of that area. The reason being Catalonia is where the rest of Spain thrives. Its rich and banks love money and the word rich. So they will stick around.
Not so sure on Pensions but again I presume there is a very big industry in Catalonia where pensions are concerned.
Coming back to the EU though and I see the EU has shot its self in the foot today with what it has come out and said.
The EUs own rules have an Article 7
What is Article 7?
An EU infringement procedure to be used against member countries that have committed fundamental rights violations.
There are two parts — Article 7.1 would allow the Council to give a formal warning to any country accused of violating fundamental rights.
If that doesn’t have the desired effect, Article 7.2 would impose sanctions and suspend voting rights.
Spain has violated the fundamental basic human rights to vote by sending in the Police like they did. And remember that the Police take their orders from both the Interior and Defense Ministers of Spain. That makes it a military intervention. Yet all the EU could do is ask for calm by both sides.
Not good enough from them, they should warning Spain of dire consequences if the Spanish Government do this again.